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Male clothes are often more practical that is, they can function well under a wide variety of situations , but a wider range of clothing styles are available for females. Males are typically allowed to bare their chests in a greater variety of public places. It is generally more or less acceptable for a woman to wear clothing perceived as masculine, while the opposite is seen as unusual. In some cultures, sumptuary laws regulate what men and women are required to wear.

Islam requires women to wear more modest forms of attire, usually hijab. What qualifies as "modest" varies in different Muslim societies. However, women are usually required to cover more of their bodies than men are. Articles of clothing Muslim women wear for modesty range from the head-scarf to the burqa. Men may sometimes choose to wear men's skirts such as togas or kilts in particular cultures, especially on ceremonial occasions.

Such garments were in previous times often worn as normal daily clothing by men. Clothing designed to be worn by either sex is called unisex clothing. Unisex clothes, such as T-shirts, tend to be cut straighter to fit a wider variety of bodies.

The majority of unisex clothing styles have started out as menswear, but some articles, like the fedora , were originally worn by women. In some societies, clothing may be used to indicate rank or status. In ancient Rome , for example, only senators could wear garments dyed with Tyrian purple. In traditional Hawaiian society, only high-ranking chiefs could wear feather cloaks and palaoa, or carved whale teeth.

In China , before establishment of the republic , only the emperor could wear yellow. History provides many examples of elaborate sumptuary laws that regulated what people could wear. In societies without such laws, which includes most modern societies, social status is instead signaled by the purchase of rare or luxury items that are limited by cost to those with wealth or status. In addition, peer pressure influences clothing choice.

Some religious clothing might be considered a special case of occupational clothing. Sometimes it is worn only during the performance of religious ceremonies.

However, it may also be worn every day as a marker for special religious status. For example, Jains and Muslim men wear unstitched cloth pieces when performing religious ceremonies. The unstitched cloth signifies unified and complete devotion to the task at hand, with no digression. The cleanliness of religious dresses in Eastern religions like Hinduism , Sikhism , Buddhism , Islam and Jainism is of paramount importance since it indicates purity. Clothing appears in numerous contexts in the Bible ; the most prominent passages are: Furthermore, the priests officiating in the Temple in Jerusalem had very specific garments, the lack of which made one liable to death.

The Quran says about husbands and wives, regarding clothing: Jewish ritual also requires rending of one's upper garment as a sign of mourning. This practice is found in the Bible when Jacob hears of the apparent death of his son Joseph. According to archaeologists and anthropologists, the earliest clothing likely consisted of fur , leather , leaves, or grass that were draped, wrapped, or tied around the body.

Knowledge of such clothing remains inferential, since clothing materials deteriorate quickly compared to stone, bone, shell and metal artifacts. Archeologists have identified very early sewing needles of bone and ivory from about 30, BC, found near Kostenki , Russia in Scientists are still debating when people started wearing clothes.

Ralf Kittler, Manfred Kayser and Mark Stoneking, anthropologists at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology , have conducted a genetic analysis of human body lice that suggests clothing originated around , years ago. Body lice are an indicator of clothes-wearing, since most humans have sparse body hair, and lice thus require human clothing to survive.

Their research suggests that the invention of clothing may have coincided with the northward migration of modern Homo sapiens away from the warm climate of Africa , thought to have begun between 50, and , years ago.

However, a second group of researchers using similar genetic methods estimate that clothing originated around , years ago. Some human cultures, such as the various peoples of the Arctic Circle , traditionally make their clothing entirely of prepared and decorated furs and skins. Other cultures supplemented or replaced leather and skins with cloth: Although modern consumers may take the production of clothing for granted, making fabric by hand is a tedious and labor-intensive process involving fiber making, spinning, and weaving.

Different cultures have evolved various ways of creating clothes out of cloth. One approach simply involves draping the cloth. The clothes may simply be tied up dhoti and sari ; or pins or belts hold the garments in place kilt and sarong. The cloth remains uncut, and people of various sizes can wear the garment. Another approach involves measuring, cutting, and sewing the cloth by hand or with a sewing machine. Clothing can be cut from a sewing pattern and adjusted by a tailor to the wearer's measurements.

An adjustable sewing mannequin or dress form is used to create form-fitting clothing. If the fabric is expensive, the tailor tries to use every bit of the cloth rectangle in constructing the clothing; perhaps cutting triangular pieces from one corner of the cloth, and adding them elsewhere as gussets.

Traditional European patterns for men's shirts and women's chemises take this approach. These remnants can also be reused to make patchwork hats, vests, and skirts. Modern European fashion treats cloth much less conservatively, typically cutting in such a way as to leave various odd-shaped cloth remnants.

Industrial sewing operations sell these as waste; home sewers may turn them into quilts. In the thousands of years that humans have been making clothing, they have created an astonishing array of styles, many of which have been reconstructed from surviving garments, photos , paintings , mosaics , etc.

Costume history can inspire current fashion designers , as well as costumiers for plays , films , television , and historical reenactment. The mechanization of the textile industry made many varieties of cloth widely available at affordable prices. Styles have changed, and the availability of synthetic fabrics has changed the definition of "stylish". In the latter half of the 20th century, blue jeans became very popular, and are now worn to events that normally demand formal attire.

Activewear has also become a large and growing market. Jeans in the Western dress code are worn by both men and women. There are several unique styles of jeans found which include: The licensing of designer names was pioneered by designers like Pierre Cardin in the s and has been a common practice within the fashion industry from about the s. By the early years of the 21st century, western clothing styles had, to some extent, become international styles.

This process began hundreds of years earlier, during the periods of European colonialism. The process of cultural dissemination has perpetuated over the centuries as Western media corporations have penetrated markets throughout the world, spreading Western culture and styles. Fast fashion clothing has also become a global phenomenon. These garments are less expensive, mass-produced Western clothing.

Donated used clothing from Western countries are also delivered to people in poor countries by charity organizations. People may wear ethnic or national dress on special occasions or in certain roles or occupations. For example, most Korean men and women have adopted Western-style dress for daily wear, but still wear traditional hanboks on special occasions, like weddings and cultural holidays.

Items of Western dress may also appear worn or accessorized in distinctive, non-Western ways. A Tongan man may combine a used T-shirt with a Tongan wrapped skirt, or tupenu.

Most sports and physical activities are practiced wearing special clothing, for practical, comfort or safety reasons. Common sportswear garments include shorts , T-shirts , tennis shirts , leotards , tracksuits , and trainers. Specialized garments include wet suits for swimming , diving or surfing , salopettes for skiing and leotards for gymnastics.

Also, spandex materials are often used as base layers to soak up sweat. Paris set the fashion trends for Europe and North America Women wore dresses all day, everyday.

Day dresses had a drop waist, which was a sash or belt around the low waist or hip and a skirt that hung anywhere from the ankle on up to the knee, never above.

Daywear had sleeves long to mid-bicep and a skirt that was straight, pleaded, hank hem, or tired. Jewelry was less conspicuous. In the 21st century a diverse range of styles exist in fashion, varying by geography, exposure to modern media, economic conditions, and ranging from expensive haute couture to traditional garb, to thrift store grunge.

Fashion shows are events for designers to show off new and often extravagant designs. Although mechanization transformed most aspects of human industry by the midth century, garment workers have continued to labor under challenging conditions that demand repetitive manual labor. Mass-produced clothing is often made in what are considered by some to be sweatshops , typified by long work hours, lack of benefits, and lack of worker representation.

While most examples of such conditions are found in developing countries , clothes made in industrialized nations may also be manufactured similarly. Coalitions of NGOs , designers including Katharine Hamnett, American Apparel , Veja , Quiksilver , eVocal, and Edun and campaign groups like the Clean Clothes Campaign CCC and the Institute for Global Labour and Human Rights as well as textile and clothing trade unions have sought to improve these conditions as much as possible by sponsoring awareness-raising events, which draw the attention of both the media and the general public to the workers.

The MFA, which placed quotas on textiles imports, was deemed a protectionist measure. India for example has not ratified sections 87 and 92 of the treaty. Despite the strong reactions that "sweatshops" evoked among critics of globalization , the production of textiles has functioned as a consistent industry for developing nations providing work and wages, whether construed as exploitative or not, to many thousands of people. The use of animal fur in clothing dates to prehistoric times.

It is currently associated in developed countries with expensive, designer clothing, although fur is still used by indigenous people in arctic zones and higher elevations for its warmth and protection. Once uncontroversial, it has recently been the focus of campaigns on the grounds that campaigners consider it cruel and unnecessary.

PETA , along with other animal rights and animal liberation groups have called attention to fur farming and other practices they consider cruel. Clothing suffers assault both from within and without. The human body sheds skin cells and body oils, and exudes sweat, urine, and feces. From the outside, sun damage, moisture, abrasion, and dirt assault garments. Fleas and lice can hide in seams.

Worn clothing, if not cleaned and refurbished, itches, becomes outworn, and loses functionality as when buttons fall off, seams come undone, fabrics thin or tear, and zippers fail.

Often, people wear an item of clothing until it falls apart. Some materials present problems. Cleaning leather is difficult, and bark cloth tapa cannot be washed without dissolving it. Owners may patch tears and rips, and brush off surface dirt, but materials like these inevitably age. However, most clothing consists of cloth, and most cloth can be laundered and mended patching, darning , but compare felt.

Humans have developed many specialized methods for laundering, ranging from early methods of pounding clothes against rocks in running streams, to the latest in electronic washing machines and dry cleaning dissolving dirt in solvents other than water. Hot water washing boiling , chemical cleaning and ironing are all traditional methods of sterilizing fabrics for hygiene purposes. He would often bring multiple women, who he referred to as "hoes," to the ring with him, and would offer the sexual services of these women to his opponents in exchange for them forfeiting their matches against him.

A professional wrestling match can end in a draw. A draw occurs if both opponents are simultaneously disqualified as via countout or if the referee loses complete control of the match and both opponents attack each other with no regard to being in a match, like Brock Lesnar vs.

Undertaker at Unforgiven , neither opponent is able to answer a ten-count, or both opponents simultaneously win the match. The latter can occur if, for example, one opponent's shoulders touch the mat while maintaining a submission hold against another opponent. If the opponent in the hold begins to tap out at the same time a referee counts to three for pinning the opponent delivering the hold, both opponents have legally achieved scoring conditions simultaneously. Traditionally, a championship may not change hands in the event of a draw though it may become vacant , though some promotions such as Total Nonstop Action Wrestling have endorsed rules where the champion may lose a title by disqualification.

A variant of the draw is the time-limit draw, where the match does not have a winner by a specified time period a one-hour draw, which was once common, is known in wrestling circles as a "Broadway". Also if two wrestlers have been given a disqualification by either the referee or the chairman, this is a no contest and if there is a title on the line the champion keeps the championship.

A wrestling match may be declared a no contest if the winning conditions are unable to occur. This can be due to excessive interference, loss of referee's control over the match, one or more participants sustaining debilitating injury not caused by the opponent, or the inability of a scheduled match to even begin.

A no contest is a state separate and distinct from a draw — a draw indicates winning conditions were met. Although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably in practice, this usage is technically incorrect. While each wrestling match is ostensibly a competition of athletics and strategy, the goal of each match from a business standpoint is to excite and entertain the audience. Although the competition is staged, dramatic emphasis can be utilized to draw out the most intense reaction from the audience.

Heightened interest results in higher attendance rates, increased ticket sales, higher ratings on television broadcasts which result in greater ad revenue , higher pay-per-view buyrates, and sales of branded merchandise and recorded video footage. All of these contribute to the profit of the promotion company.

In Latin America and English-speaking countries, most wrestlers and other on-stage performers portray character roles, sometimes with personalities wildly different from their own.

These personalities are a gimmick intended to heighten interest in a wrestler without regard to athletic ability. In lucha libre , many characters wear masks, adopting a secret identity akin to a superhero , a near-sacred tradition. An individual wrestler may sometimes use his real name, or a minor variation of it, for much of his career, such as Bret Hart , John Cena and Randy Orton.

Others can keep one ring name for their entire career cases in point include Shawn Michaels , CM Punk and Ricky Steamboat , or may change from time to time to better suit the demands of the audience or company. Sometimes a character is owned and trademarked by the company, forcing the wrestler to find a new one when he leaves although a simple typeset change, such as changing Rhyno to Rhino , can usually get around this , and sometimes a character is owned by the wrestler.

Sometimes, a wrestler may change his legal name to obtain ownership of his ring name examples include Andrew Martin and Warrior.

Many wrestlers such as The Rock and The Undertaker are strongly identified with their character, even responding to the name in public or between friends. Typically, matches are staged between a protagonist historically an audience favorite, known as a babyface , or "the good guy" and an antagonist historically a villain with arrogance, a tendency to break rules, or other unlikable qualities, called a heel.

In recent years, however, antiheroes have also become prominent in professional wrestling. There is also a less common role of a "tweener", who is neither fully face nor fully heel yet able to play either role effectively case in point, Samoa Joe during his first run in TNA Wrestling from June to November This may be an abrupt, surprising event, or it may slowly build up over time. It almost always is accomplished with a markable change in behavior on the part of the character. Some turns become defining points in a wrestler's career, as was the case when Hulk Hogan turned heel after being a top face for over a decade.

Others may have no noticeable effect on the character's status. If a character repeatedly switches between being a face and heel, this lessens the effect of such turns, and may result in apathy from the audience. As with personae in general, a character's face or heel alignment may change with time, or remain constant over its lifetime the most famous example of the latter is Ricky Steamboat , a WWE Hall of Famer who remained a babyface throughout his entire career.

Sometimes a character's heel turn will become so popular that eventually the audience response will alter the character's heel-face cycle to the point where the heel persona will, in practice, become a face persona, and what was previously the face persona, will turn into the heel persona, such as when Dwayne Johnson first began using "The Rock" persona as a heel character, as opposed to his original "Rocky Maivia" babyface persona. Another legendary example is Stone Cold Steve Austin , who was originally booked as a heel, with such mannerisms as drinking on the job, using profanity , breaking company property, and even breaking into people's private homes.

However, much to WWF's surprise, the fans got such a charge out of Austin's antics that he effectively became one of the greatest antiheroes in the history of the business. While true exhibition matches are not uncommon, most matches tell a story analogous to a scene in a play or film, or an episode of a serial drama: The face will sometimes win triumph or sometimes lose tragedy.

Longer story arcs can result from multiple matches over the course of time. Since most promotions have a championship title, competition for the championship is a common impetus for stories. Also, anything from a character's own hair to his job with the promotion can be wagered in a match. Some matches are designed to further a story of only one participant. It could be intended to portray him or her as a strong unstoppable force, a lucky underdog, a sore loser, or any other characterization.

Sometimes non-wrestling vignettes are shown to enhance a character's image without the need for matches. Other stories result from a natural rivalry between two or more characters.

Outside of performance, these are referred to as feuds. A feud can exist between any number of participants and can last for a few days up to multiple decades. The feud between Ric Flair and Ricky Steamboat lasted from the late s into the early s and allegedly spanned over two thousand matches although most of those matches were mere dark matches. The career-spanning history between characters Mike Awesome and Masato Tanaka is another example of a long-running feud, as is the case of Steve Austin vs.

Vince McMahon , one of the most lucrative feuds in the World Wrestling Federation during and In theory, the longer a feud is built up, the more audience interest aka heat will exist.

The main event of a wrestling show is generally the one with the most heat behind it. Commonly, a heel will hold the upper hand over a face until a final showdown, heightening dramatic tension as the face's fans desire to see him win. Throughout the history of professional wrestling, many other elements and forms of media have been utilized in professional wrestling storytelling: Also, anything that can be used as an element of drama can exist in professional wrestling stories: Some promotions have included supernatural elements such as magic, curses, the undead and Satanic imagery most notably the Undertaker and his Ministry of Darkness , a stable that regularly performed evil rituals and human sacrifice in Satanic-like worship of a hidden power figure.

Celebrities would also be involved in storylines. Commentators have become important in communicating the relevance of the characters' actions to the story at hand, filling in past details and pointing out subtle actions that may otherwise go unnoticed. A main part of the story-telling part of wrestling is a promo, short for promotional interview. Promos are performed, or "cut", in wrestling jargon , for a variety of reasons, including to heighten interest in a wrestler, or to hype an upcoming match.

Since the crowd is often too loud or the venue too large for promos to be heard naturally, wrestlers will use amplification when speaking in the ring. Unlike most Hollywood acting, large and highly visible handheld microphones are typically used and wrestlers often speak directly to the audience. Professional wrestling mimics the structure of title match combat sports. Participants compete for a championship and must defend it after winning it. These titles are represented physically by a title belt that can be worn by the champion.

In the case of team wrestling, there is a title belt for each member of the team. Almost all professional wrestling promotions have one major title, and some have more. Championships are designated by divisions of weight, height, gender, wrestling style and other qualifications. Typically, each promotion only recognizes the "legitimacy" of their own titles, although cross-promotion does happen.

When one promotion absorbs or purchases another, the titles from the defunct promotion may continue to be defended in the new promotion or be decommissioned. Behind the scenes , the bookers in a company will place the title on the most accomplished performer, or those the bookers believe will generate fan interest in terms of event attendance and television viewership.

Lower ranked titles may also be used on the performers who show potential, thus allowing them greater exposure to the audience. However other circumstances may also determine the use of a championship.

A combination of a championship's lineage, the caliber of performers as champion, and the frequency and manner of title changes, dictates the audience's perception of the title's quality, significance and reputation. A wrestler's championship accomplishments can be central to their career, becoming a measure of their performance ability and drawing power.

In general, a wrestler with multiple title reigns or an extended title reign is indicative of a wrestler's ability to maintain audience interest or a wrestler's ability to perform in the ring.

As such, the most accomplished or decorated wrestlers tend to be revered as legends despite the predetermined nature of title reigns. American wrestler Ric Flair has had multiple world heavyweight championship reigns spanning over three decades. Often a match will take place under additional rules, usually serving as a special attraction or a climactic point in a feud or storyline.

Sometimes this will be the culmination of an entire feud, ending it for the immediate future known as a blowoff match. Perhaps the most well-known non-standard match is the cage match , in which the ring is surrounded by a fence or similar metal structure, with the express intention of preventing escape or outside interference—and with the added bonus of the cage being a potentially brutal weapon or platform for launching attacks. The WWE has another provision where a standard cage match can end with one wrestler or wrestling team escaping the cage through the door or over the top.

Another example is the WWE's Royal Rumble match, which involves thirty participants in a random and unknown order. The Rumble match is itself a spectacle in that it is a once-yearly event with multiple participants, including individuals who might not interact otherwise. It also serves as a catalyst for the company's ongoing feuds, as well as a springboard for new storylines. While the wrestling matches themselves are the primary focus of professional wrestling, a key dramatic element of the business can be entrances of the wrestlers to the arena and ring.

It is typical for a wrestler to get their biggest crowd reaction or "pop" for their ring entrance, rather than for anything they do in the wrestling match itself, especially if former main event stars are returning to a promotion after a long absence. All notable wrestlers now enter the ring accompanied by music, and regularly add other elements to their entrance. The music played during the ring entrance will usually mirror the wrestler's personality.

Many wrestlers, particularly in America, have music and lyrics specially written for their ring entrance. While invented long before, the practice of including music with the entrance gained rapid popularity during the s, largely as a result of the huge success of Hulk Hogan and the WWF, and their Rock 'n' Wrestling Connection.

When a match is won, the victor's theme music is usually also played in celebration. Because wrestling is predetermined, a wrestler's entrance music will play as they enter the arena, even if they are, in kayfabe , not supposed to be there. For example, in through , The Shield was a trio of wrestlers who were in kayfabe not at the time under contract with WWE hence their gimmick of entering the ring through the crowd , but they still had entrance music which was played whenever they entered the arena, despite the fact that they were kayfabe invaders.

Another method of entry involves descending from the ceiling with a Zip-line or rappel line and stunt harness. Special ring entrances are also developed for big occasions, most notably the WrestleMania event. Live bands are sometimes hired to perform live entrance music at special events. John Cena and Triple H are particularly notable in recent years for their highly theatrical entrances at WrestleMania. The women's division of professional wrestling has maintained a recognized world champion since , when Mildred Burke won the original World Women's title.

She then formed the World Women's Wrestling Association in the early s and recognized herself as the first champion, although the championship would be vacated upon her retirement in The NWA however, ceased to acknowledge Burke as their Women's World champion in , and instead acknowledged June Byers as champion after a controversial finish to a high-profile match between Burke and Byers that year.

For most of its history, men and women would rarely compete against each other in professional wrestling, as it was deemed to be unfair and unchivalrous. Andy Kaufman used this to gain notoriety when he created an Intergender Championship and declared it open to any female challenger.

This led to a long worked feud with Jerry Lawler. In the s, mixed tag team matches began to take place, with a male and female on each team and a rule stating that each wrestler could only attack the opponent of the same gender. If a tag was made, the other team had to automatically switch their legal wrestler as well. Despite these restrictions, many mixed tag matches do feature some physical interaction between participants of different genders. For example, a heel may take a cheap shot at the female wrestler of the opposing team to draw a negative crowd reaction.

In lucha libre, cheap-shots and male-female attacks are not uncommon. Intergender singles bouts were first fought on a national level in the s. Later, Chyna became the first female to hold a belt that was not exclusive to women when she won the WWF Intercontinental Championship. Also, ODB's kayfabe husband and tag team partner Eric Young held the Knockouts tag team titles for a record days before it was stripped by Brooke Hogan because Young was a male.

Midget wrestling can be traced to professional wrestling's carnival and vaudeville origins. In recent years, the popularity and prevalence of midgets in wrestling has greatly decreased due to wrestling companies depriving midget divisions of storyline or feud. However, WWE has made a few attempts to enter this market with their "minis" in the s and the "junior's league" as recent as It is still a popular form of entertainment in Mexican wrestling, mostly as a "sideshow". Some wrestlers may have their own specific "mini me", like Mascarita Sagrada , Alebrije has Quije, etc.

There are also cases in which midgets can become valets for a wrestler, and even get physically involved in matches, like Alushe , who often accompanies Tinieblas , or KeMonito , who is portrayed as Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre's mascot and is also a valet for Mistico.

Dave Finlay was often aided in his matches by a midget known mainly as Hornswoggle while in WWE, who hid under the ring and gave a shillelagh to Finlay to use on his opponent. Finlay also occasionally threw him at his opponent s. But the styles of professional wrestling are different, given their independent development for a long period.

Professional wrestling in the U. There is a story for each match, and even a longer story for successive matches. The stories usually contain characters like faces and heels , and less often antiheroes and tweeners. It is a "triumph" if the face wins, while it is a "tragedy" if the heel wins. The characters usually have strong and sharp personalities, with examples like Doink the Clown , whose personality is melodramatic, slapstick and fantastical.

The opposition between faces and heels is very intense in the story, and the heels may even attack the faces during TV interviews. The relationship between different characters can also be very complex. Although professional wrestling in Mexico Lucha libre also has stories and characters, they are less emphasized. Wrestlers in Mexico are traditionally more agile and perform more aerial maneuvers than professional wrestlers in the U.

Wrestlers often execute high flying moves characteristic of lucha libre by utilizing the wrestling ring 's ropes to catapult themselves towards their opponents, using intricate combinations in rapid-fire succession, and applying complex submission holds.

The style of Japanese professional wrestling puroresu is again different. With its origins in traditional American style of wrestling and still being under the same genre, it has become an entity in itself. In most of the largest promotions, such as New Japan Pro-Wrestling , All Japan Pro Wrestling and Pro Wrestling Noah , it is treated as a full contact combat sport as it mixes hard hitting martial arts strikes with shoot style submission holds , [22] while in the U.

Wrestlers incorporate kicks and strikes from martial arts disciplines, and a strong emphasis is placed on submission wrestling , and unlike the use of involved storylines in the U.

This is known as "Lucharesu". Professional wrestling has developed its own cultures, both internal and external. Those involved in producing professional wrestling have developed a kind of global fraternity , with familial bonds, shared language and passed-down traditions.

New performers are expected to "pay their dues" for a few years by working in lower-profile promotions and working as ring crew before working their way upward. Fans of professional wrestling have their own subculture, comparable to those of science fiction, video games, or comic books. Those who are interested in the backstage occurrences, future storylines and reasonings behind company decisions read newsletters written by journalists with inside ties to the wrestling industry.

Some have expanded into radio shows. Some fans enjoy a pastime of collecting tapes of wrestling shows from specific companies, of certain wrestlers, or of specific genres. The internet has given fans exposure to worldwide variations of wrestling they would be unable to see otherwise.

When the WWE purchased both WCW and ECW in , they also obtained the entire past video libraries of both productions and have released many past matches online and on home video. Like some other sports, fantasy leagues have developed around professional wrestling.

Some take this concept further by creating E-feds electronic federations , where a user can create their own fictional wrestling character, and role-playing storylines with other users, leading to scheduled "shows" where match results are determined by the organizers, usually based on a combination of the characters' statistics and the players' roleplaying aptitude, sometimes with audience voting.

From the first established world championship, the top professional wrestlers have garnered fame within mainstream society. Each successive generation has produced a number of wrestlers who extend their careers into the realms of music, acting, writing, business, politics or public speaking, and are known to those who are unfamiliar with wrestling in general. Conversely, celebrities from other sports or general pop culture also become involved with wrestling for brief periods of time.

Professional wrestling is often portrayed within other works using parody, and its general elements have become familiar tropes and memes in American culture. Some terminology originating in professional wrestling has found its way into the common vernacular.

Phrases such as "body slam", "sleeper hold" and "tag team" are used by those who do not follow professional wrestling. The term "smackdown", popularized by The Rock and SmackDown! At least two stage plays set in the world of pro wrestling have been produced: The Baron is a comedy that retells the life of an actual performer known as Baron von Raschke.

The South Park episode " W. One of the lead characters on the Disney Channel series Kim Possible was a huge fan of pro wrestling and actually featured it on an episode with two former WWE wrestlers voicing the two fictitious wrestlers featured in the episode. The film The Wrestler , about a washed-up professional wrestler, garnered several Oscar nominations. The film noir Night and the City , directed by Jules Dassin and starring Richard Widmark and Gene Tierney , told the story of a promoter in London trying to make it big, and featured a match involving real professional wrestler Stanislaus Zbyszko.

With its growing popularity, professional wrestling has attracted attention as a subject of serious academic study and journalistic criticism. Many courses, theses, essays and dissertations have analyzed wrestling's conventions , content, and its role in modern society.

It is often included as part of studies on theatre, sociology, performance, and media. But this was not always the case; in the early 20th century, once it became apparent that the "sport" was worked, pro wrestling was looked down on as a cheap entertainment for the uneducated working class [26] —an attitude that still exists to varying degrees today.

Wrestling is described as performed art which demands an immediate reading of the juxtaposed meanings. The logical conclusion is given least importance over the theatrical performers of the wrestlers and the referee. According to Barthes the function of a wrestler is not to win: This work is considered a foundation of all later study. While pro wrestling is often described simplistically as a " soap opera for males", it has also been cited as filling the role of past forms of literature and theatre ; a synthesis of classical heroics , [35] commedia dell'arte , [36] revenge tragedies , [37] morality plays , [37] and burlesque.

Documentary filmmakers have studied the lives of wrestlers and the effects the profession has on them and their families.

The theatrical documentary Beyond the Mat focused on Terry Funk , a wrestler nearing retirement ; Mick Foley , a wrestler within his prime; Jake Roberts , a former star fallen from grace; and a school of wrestling student trying to break into the business.

The release Lipstick and Dynamite, Piss and Vinegar: The First Ladies of Wrestling chronicled the development of women's wrestling throughout the 20th century. Although professional wrestling is choreographed, there is a high chance of injury, and even death.

The ring is often made out of 2 by 8 timber planks. There have been many brutal accidents, hits and injuries. Professional wrestler Davey Richards said in "We train to take damage, we know we are going to take damage and we accept that. In April , less than 25 years after the WrestleMania VI , one-third of its 36 competitors had died including André the Giant and main event winner The Ultimate Warrior , with none of the deceased having reached the age of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about wrestling as a form of theatrical performance. For the Olympic sport, see Wrestling. For other uses, see Professional wrestling disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

September Learn how and when to remove this template message. A professional wrestling match in Carnival Catch wrestling Commedia dell'arte Vaudeville Music hall. This section needs additional citations for verification. History of professional wrestling. This section does not cite any sources.

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Kayfabe and Shoot professional wrestling. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. November Learn how and when to remove this template message.

List of premature professional wrestling deaths. The 50 Best Props in Wrestling History". Retrieved September 9, The skills of the wrestlers do not determine the outcome of the match.

Instead, writers work on plots and storylines well in advance, and every match is another chapter in the story. Who wins and who loses is all in the script. Pro wrestling is more or less open about the fact that the stories and plots are predetermined. They rely on the fans' willing acceptance and desire to be entertained by the stories, but wrestling performers still need to stay in character during a match.

Retrieved June 10, International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles. Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 2 August Archived from the original on August 4, Retrieved September 5, Archived from the original on Samoa Joe - Oct 3, Sports - Wrestling - Lucha Libre ".

Lucha Libre confuses me, what are the rules? How Professional Wrestling Works.

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