Decorated page of a Koran from Persia AD. The new style had a long tail coat cut to fit the body and long tight trousers to replace the knee-length breeches and stockings of the previous century. The leaf has been soaked in water, fermented, mixed with lye or another base, then pressed into cakes and dried, ready for export. The invention of new synthetic pigments in the 18th and 19th centuries considerably brightened and expanded the palette of painters. This ruined the dye industries in Toulouse and the other cities that produced pastel, but created a thriving new indigo commerce to seaports such as Bordeaux, Nantes and Marseille.
It was replaced with uniforms of a light blue-grey colour called horizon blue. Blue was the colour of liberty and revolution in the 18th century, but in the 19th it increasingly became the colour of government authority, the uniform colour of policemen and other public servants. It was considered serious and authoritative, without being menacing. In , when Robert Peel created the first London Metropolitan Police , he made the colour of the uniform jacket a dark, almost black blue, to make the policemen look different from soldiers, who until then had patrolled the streets.
The traditional blue jacket with silver buttons of the London "bobbie" was not abandoned until the mids, when it was replaced by a light blue shirt and a jumper or sweater of the colour officially known as NATO blue. The New York City Police Department , modelled after the London Metropolitan Police, was created in , and in , they were officially given a navy blue uniform, the colour they wear today.
Navy blue is one of the most popular school uniform colors, with the Toronto Catholic District School Board adopting a dress code policy which requires students system-wide to wear white tops and navy blue bottoms. Elector Frederic William of Brandenburg gave his soldiers blue uniforms engraving from When Brandenburg became the Kingdom of Prussia in , blue became the uniform colour of the Prussian Army.
Uniform of a lieutenant in the Royal Navy Marine blue became the official colour of the Royal Navy uniform coat in George Washington chose blue and buff as the colours of the Continental Army uniform. They were the colours of the English Whig Party, which Washington admired.
The cadets of the Ecole Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr , the French military academy, still wear the blue and red uniform of the French army before Metropolitan Police officers in Soho, London During the 17th and 18th centuries, chemists in Europe tried to discover a way to create synthetic blue pigments, avoiding the expense of importing and grinding lapis lazuli, azurite and other minerals.
The Egyptians had created a synthetic colour, Egyptian blue, three thousand years BC, but the formula had been lost. The Chinese had also created synthetic pigments, but the formula was not known in the west. In a German druggist and pigment maker named Johann Jacob Diesbach accidentally discovered a new blue while experimenting with potassium and iron sulphides.
The new colour was first called Berlin blue, but later became known as Prussian blue. By it was being used by the French painter Antoine Watteau , and later his successor Nicolas Lancret. It became immensely popular for the manufacture of wallpaper, and in the 19th century was widely used by French impressionist painters. Beginning in the s, Prussian blue was imported into Japan through the port of Nagasaki. It was called bero-ai , or Berlin blue, and it became popular because it did not fade like traditional Japanese blue pigment, ai-gami , made from the dayflower.
Prussian blue was used by both Hokusai , in his famous wave paintings, and Hiroshige. In the Societé pour l'Encouragement d'Industrie in France offered a prize for the invention of an artificial ultramarine which could rival the natural colour made from lapis lazuli. The prize was won in by a chemist named Jean Baptiste Guimet, but he refused to reveal the formula of his colour. In , another scientist, Christian Gmelin then a professor of chemistry in Tübingen, found the process and published his formula.
This was the beginning of new industry to manufacture artificial ultramarine, which eventually almost completely replaced the natural product.
In a German chemist named a. Von Baeyer discovered a synthetic substitute for indigotine , the active ingredient of indigo. This product gradually replaced natural indigo, and after the end of the First World War, it brought an end to the trade of indigo from the East and West Indies.
In a new synthetic blue dye, called Indanthrone blue , was invented, which had even greater resistance to fading during washing or in the sun. This dye gradually replaced artificial indigo, whose production ceased in about Today almost all blue clothing is dyed with an indanthrone blue. Thomas Gainsborough 's The Blue Boy includes "the lavish lapis lazuli, the darker indigo pigment and the paler cobalt. The 19th-century Japanese woodblock artist Hokusai used Prussian blue , a synthetic colour imported from Europe, in his wave paintings, such as in The Great Wave off Kanagawa.
A synthetic indigo dye factory in Germany in The manufacture of this dye ended the trade in indigo from America and India that had begun in the 15th century. The invention of new synthetic pigments in the 18th and 19th centuries considerably brightened and expanded the palette of painters.
Turner experimented with the new cobalt blue, and of the twenty colours most used by the Impressionists , twelve were new and synthetic colours, including cobalt blue, ultramarine and cerulean blue. Another important influence on painting in the 19th century was the theory of complementary colours, developed by the French chemist Michel Eugene Chevreul in and published in He demonstrated that placing complementary colours, such as blue and yellow-orange or ultramarine and yellow, next to each other heightened the intensity of each colour "to the apogee of their tonality.
The colours brighten each other. Renoir used the same contrast of cobalt blue water and an orange sun in Canotage sur la Seine — Both Monet and Renoir liked to use pure colours, without any blending.
Monet and the impressionists were among the first to observe that shadows were full of colour. In his La Gare Saint-Lazare , the grey smoke, vapour and dark shadows are actually composed of mixtures of bright pigment, including cobalt blue, cerulean blue, synthetic ultramarine, emerald green, Guillet green, chrome yellow, vermilion and ecarlate red.
Cobalt blue , a pigment of cobalt oxide-aluminium oxide, was a favourite of Auguste Renoir and Vincent van Gogh. It was similar to smalt , a pigment used for centuries to make blue glass, but it was much improved by the French chemist Louis Jacques Thénard , who introduced it in It was very stable but extremely expensive.
Van Gogh wrote to his brother Theo, "'Cobalt [blue] is a divine colour and there is nothing so beautiful for putting atmosphere around things Van Gogh described to his brother Theo how he composed a sky: Claude Monet used several recently invented colours in his Gare Saint-Lazare He used cobalt blue , invented in , cerulean blue invented in , and French ultramarine , first made in In Régate à Argenteuil , Monet used two complementary colours together — blue and orange — to brighten the effect of both colours.
The Umbrellas , by Pierre Auguste-Renoir. Renoir used cobalt blue for right side of the picture, but used the new synthetic ultramarine introduced in the s, when he added two figures to left of the picture a few years later. In Vincent van Gogh's Irises , the blue irises are placed against their complementary colour, yellow-orange.
Blue used to create a mood or atmosphere. A cobalt blue sky, and cobalt or ultramarine water. He wrote of cobalt blue, "there is nothing so beautiful for putting atmosphere around things. Blue had first become the high fashion colour of the wealthy and powerful in Europe in the 13th century, when it was worn by Louis IX of France , better known as Saint Louis Wearing blue implied dignity and wealth, and blue clothing was restricted to the nobility.
Blue gradually returned to court fashion in the 17th century, as part of a palette of peacock-bright colours shown off in extremely elaborate costumes. The modern blue business suit has its roots in England in the middle of the 17th century.
Following the London plague of and the London fire of , King Charles II of England ordered that his courtiers wear simple coats, waistcoats and breeches, and the palette of colours became blue, grey, white and buff. Widely imitated, this style of men's fashion became almost a uniform of the London merchant class and the English country gentleman.
During the American Revolution, the leader of the Whig Party in England, Charles James Fox , wore a blue coat and buff waistcoat and breeches, the colours of the Whig Party and of the uniform of George Washington , whose principles he supported. The men's suit followed the basic form of the military uniforms of the time, particularly the uniforms of the cavalry. Brummel created a suit that closely fitted the human form. The new style had a long tail coat cut to fit the body and long tight trousers to replace the knee-length breeches and stockings of the previous century.
He used plain colours, such as blue and grey, to concentrate attention on the form of the body, not the clothes. Brummel observed, "If people turn to look at you in the street, you are not well dressed. Originally the coat and trousers were different colours, but in the 19th century the suit of a single colour became fashionable. By the late 19th century the black suit had become the uniform of businessmen in England and America.
In the 20th century, the black suit was largely replaced by the dark blue or grey suit. It quickly became the colour of the nobles and wealthy. Joseph Leeson, later 1st Earl of Milltown, in the typical dress of the English country gentleman in the s.
Portrait by Joshua Reynolds Beau Brummel introduced the ancestor of the modern blue suit, shaped to the body. Dark blue suits were still rare; this one is blue-green or teal.
Man's blue suit in the s, Paris. Kennedy popularised the blue two-button business suit, less formal than the suits of his predecessors. In the 21st century, the dark blue business suit is the most common style worn by world leaders, seen here at the G Summit in Cannes , France.
At the beginning of the 20th century, many artists recognised the emotional power of blue, and made it the central element of paintings. During his Blue Period — Pablo Picasso used blue and green, with hardly any warm colours, to create a melancholy mood. In Russia, the symbolist painter Pavel Kuznetsov and the Blue Rose art group — used blue to create a fantastic and exotic atmosphere. Matisse wrote, "A certain blue penetrates your soul.
In the art of the second half of the 20th century, painters of the abstract expressionist movement began to use blue and other colours in pure form, without any attempt to represent anything, to inspire ideas and emotions.
Painter Mark Rothko observed that colour was "only an instrument;" his interest was "in expressing human emotions tragedy, ecstasy, doom, and so on. In fashion blue, particularly dark blue, was seen as a colour which was serious but not grim. In the midth century, blue passed black as the most common colour of men's business suits, the costume usually worn by political and business leaders. Public opinion polls in the United States and Europe showed that blue was the favourite colour of over fifty per cent of respondents.
Green was far behind with twenty per cent, while white and red received about eight per cent each. In a German immigrant in San Francisco, Levi Strauss , invented a sturdy kind of work trousers, made of denim fabric and coloured with indigo dye, called blue jeans.
In , they were raised to the level of high fashion by Vogue magazine. Beginning in the s, they became an essential part of uniform of young people in the United States, Europe, and around the world. Blue was also seen as a colour which was authoritative without being threatening.
United Nations peacekeepers wear blue helmets to stress their peacekeeping role. The 20th century saw the invention of new ways of creating blue, such as chemiluminescence , making blue light through a chemical reaction. In the 20th century, it also became possible to own your own colour of blue. The French artist Yves Klein , with the help of a French paint dealer, created a specific blue called International Klein blue , which he patented.
It was made of ultramarine combined with a resin called Rhodopa, which gave it a particularly brilliant colour. The baseball team the Los Angeles Dodgers developed its own blue, called Dodger blue , and several American universities invented new blues for their colours. With the dawn of the World Wide Web , blue has become the standard colour for hyperlinks in graphic browsers though in most browsers links turn purple if you visit their target , to make their presence within text obvious to readers.
The Russian avant-garde painter Pavel Kuznetsov and his group, the Blue Rose , used blue to symbolise fantasy and exoticism. This is In the Steppe — Mirage The Conversation — by Henri Matisse used blue to express the emotions he wanted the viewer to feel.
Blue jeans , made of denim coloured with indigo dye, patented by Levi Strauss in , became an essential part of the wardrobe of young people beginning in the s. Blue is the colour of United Nations peacekeepers , known as Blue Helmets. Vivid blues can be created by chemical reactions, called chemiluminescence. This is luminol , a chemical used in crime scene investigations.
Luminol glows blue when it contacts even a tiny trace of blood. Blue neon lighting , first used in commercial advertising, is now used in works of art. The Story Bridge in Brisbane, Australia illuminated in blue light for ovarian cancer awareness. A man of the Tuareg people of North Africa wears a tagelmust or turban dyed with indigo. The indigo stains their skin blue; they were known by early visitors as "the blue men" of the desert. Various shades of blue are used as the national colours for many nations.
An illustration by William Hogarth from shows a polling station with the blue flag of the Tory party and the orange flag of the Whigs. A map of the US showing the blue states , which voted for the Democratic candidate in all the last four Presidential elections, and the red states , which voted for the Republican. Blue stripes on a traditional Jewish tallit. The blue stripes are also featured in the flag of Israel. Vishnu , the supreme god of Hinduism , is often portrayed as being blue, or more precisely having skin the colour of rain-filled clouds.
In Catholicism , blue became the traditional colour of the robes of the Virgin Mary in the 13th century. He traditionally holds a lapis lazuli jar of medicine.
In the Islamic World, blue and turquoise tile traditionally decorates the facades and exteriors of mosques and other religious buildings. This mosque is in Isfahan , Iran. Blue was first used as a gender signifier just prior to World War I for either girls or boys , and first established as a male gender signifier in the s. Madame Pompadour , the mistress of King Louis XV of France , wore blue myosotis , or forget-me-not flowers in her hair and on her gowns as a symbol of faithfulness to the king.
Many sporting teams make blue their official colour, or use it as detail on kit of a different colour. In addition, the colour is present on the logos of many sports associations. Along with red , blue is the most commonly used non-white colours for teams. In international association football , blue is a common colour on kits, as a majority of nations wear the colours of their national flag.
Two neighbouring countries with two World Cup victories each, Argentina and Uruguay wear a light blue shirt, the former with white stripes. Uruguay are known as the La Celeste , Spanish for 'the sky blue one', while Argentina are known as Los Albicelestes , Spanish for 'the sky blue and whites'.
Blue features on the logo of football's governing body FIFA , as well as featuring highly in the design of their website. In Major League Baseball , the premier baseball league in the United States and Canada, blue is one of the three colours, along with white and red, on the league's official logo.
A team from Toronto , Ontario are nicknamed the Blue Jays. Seventeen other teams either regularly feature blue hats or utilise the colour in their uniforms. The National Basketball Association , the premier basketball league in the United States and Canada, also has blue as one of the colours on their logo, along with red and white also, as did its female equivalent, the WNBA , until March 28, , when the latter adopted an orange and white logo.
Fifteen NBA teams feature the colour in their uniforms. The National Football League , the premier American football league in the United States, also uses blue as one of three colours, along with white and red, on their official logo.
Thirteen NFL teams prominently feature the colour. Blue is the main colour of many teams in the league: The Italian national football team wear blue in honour of the royal House of Savoy which unified the country. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
A primary colour between purple and green. This article is about the colour. For other uses, see Blue disambiguation. Pure blue, also known as high blue, is not mixed with any other colours. A lapis lazuli bowl from Iran End of 3rd, beginning 2nd millennium BC. In the 12th century blue became part of the royal coat of arms of France. In , New York policemen and firemen were officially outfitted in navy blue uniforms. List of historical sources for pink and blue as gender signifiers.
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March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Blue Flag disambiguation Blue movie disambiguation Blue Screen of Death Blue university sport Distinguishing "blue" from "green" in language Engineer's blue List of colours Non-photo blue. Archived from the original on A New Dictionary of Heraldry. Hardy and Fred H. The Principles of Optics. The Cold Outside Shop.
Old Navy Logo for the Family. Christmas Pajamas for the Family. Red white and blue clothing. Work out, or just work it. Women Women's Plus Petite Tall. Printed Crew-Neck Bodysuit for Baby. Printed Jersey Tee for Toddler Girls. Printed Jersey Leggings for Toddler Girls. The religious habit of the Sisters of the Annunciation is white, with a red scapular and a black veil.
The religious habit of the Franciscan Friars and Sisters of the Immaculate is gray-blue. The image shown is, however, from an un-related Community.
The religious habit of the Trinitarian Order is white with a distinctive cross with a blue horizontal bar and a red vertical bar. The religious habit of the Sisters of the Incarnate Word and Blessed Sacrament is white, with a red scapular and a black veil. Oratorians wear roughly the same vestments as parish priests. The distinctive Oratorian clerical collar consists of white cloth that folds over the collar all around the neck.
Nuns belonging to the Daughters of Charity. Religious habit of a Premonstratensian canon. The Hieronymites wear a white tunic with a brown, hooded scapular and a brown mantle.
The habit used by the Hieronymites monks Order of Saint Jerome. The Mercedarians wear white. In Japan, various types of very traditional dress are worn by Shinto priests, often dating to styles worn by nobles during the Nara period or Heian period. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Religious habit of a Trappist monk. Princeton University Press, Oxfordshire, Three Mountains and Seven Rivers.
The Origins of Buddhist Schools. Santi Forest Monastery, Reviving Full Ordination for Buddhist Nuns. Ascertaining the Three Vows. Consecrated life in the Catholic Church. Clerical clothing Coif Cornette Scapular Vestment. Asceticism Tonsure Vocational discernment. Retrieved from " https: Articles containing Chinese-language text Articles containing Japanese-language text Articles containing Korean-language text Articles containing Vietnamese-language text Articles to be expanded from March All articles to be expanded Articles using small message boxes.
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